Cable Tricep Extension is a very good isolation exercise for the triceps. This exercise is efficient because it places stable tension on the triceps, gives it a good stretch at the bottom placement and a strong contraction at the top. Cable Tricep Extension is greatly done as a finishing exercise. You get great results with this exercise by utilizing light weights and concentrating on proper form and technique.

Cable Tricep Extension How To

 1. Fix the height of the rope pulley of a cable machine station so that it is above your head.

 2. Grab the ends of the rope pulley and place it away from the cable machine station. Exercise a few steps forward so there will be tension on the cable.

3. Maintain your elbows parallel to the floor and in line with the top of your shoulders. Fix one foot forward for better balance. Your back must be at a 70 degree angle.

 4. Expand your elbows until your arms are completely straight. Grasp  the position for a count of “one”.

 5. Bring your elbows back to beginning position by resisting the weight. Get a great stretch on your triceps without lifting your elbows out of their original position.

6. Another version is to fix the rope pulley at the bottom of the cable machine station and to pull the rope from behind your head. Your upper body is close to upright position.

  7.  Maintain your elbows in place. Expand your elbows until your arms are straight and grasp the position for a count of “one”.

   A. Resist the weight as you go back to beginning position.

  B. Repeat the exercise until you have completed the focused number of reps.

Form and Technique

The key to both versions of Cable Tricep Extension is to maintain the elbows steady.

Do not permit them to drift out of placement or flare out because this shifts the concentration from the triceps to the shoulders.

It also puts  unnecessary strain on the elbows.

Replacement Exercises for Triceps Pushdown.

Any time you straighten an arm or utilize your arm(s) to push, your triceps is at work. Tricep pushdowns are a notable way of working this muscle on the back of your arm. But if you don’t have permission to the right equipment for that exercise, you can pick from any tricep pushdown alternative.

Exactly how many sets and repetitions you should do, how much weight you should carry relies on your strength-training goals. For general strength and perseverance, doing one to three sets of eight to 12 repetitions — as prescribed in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activity instructions for Americans — is a wonderful place to start.

If you’re aspiring for muscular perseverance, consider utilizing a slightly lighter weight and exemplifying more than 12 repetitions, as counseled by the American Council on Exercise — and for strength or power, utilize heavier weights that make it difficult o complete six to eight repetitions.

Move 1: Tricep Pushdown at Home

Tricep pushdowns are usually completed with a high cable pulley. But if you don’t have permission to a cable machine, you can perform a version of the tricep pushdown at home with nothing but an elastic resistance band and a door anchor.

1. Thread your elastic resistance band through the loop angle of the door anchor; the midpoint of the band should be in the loop.

  2. Place the door anchor on top of a sturdy door, and then shut the door to grasp it in place. The “stopper” side of the anchor goes on the far side of the door, while the loop that grabs the resistance band should be wholly on your side of the door.

  1. Stand focusing the door and grip one side of the band in each hand. Maintain your elbows close by your sides and bend your arms so they come up to about chest height.

 2. Choke up on the band, or amend the handles as important, so there’s tension in the band at this position.

 3. Imagine that your elbows are locked to your sides as you straighten your arms, pressing your hands down against the band’s resistance.

4. Return to the beginning position with a slow, controlled motion.

6 Tricep Pushdown Alternatives for  Size and Strength.

The tricep pushdown never goes astray in a workout regime of anybody who wants for serious arm and strength. It’s simply not enough to have sizable biceps; triceps are equally as essential, and the tricep pushdown is notable to deliver promising results!

But what if you don’t have permission to a cable machine and are unable to exemplify this well-loved tricep exercise? Are there efficient alternatives to the tricep pushdown?

Absolutely, yes! There are a few ways to get around the difficulty of not having a cable machine to permit for this exercise to be exemplified. And they’re just as great!    

I’m going to be sharing with you Some of my top-rated triceps exercises that are so good an alternative to the cable pushdown. They provide the same, if not the actual same movement, and focus the same muscles!

But, before we view at what they are, below you will find some info on why the triceps are an essential set of muscles to train, and why you should be giving all these alternatives a go!

Why You Need to Train Your Triceps

Apart from the aesthetic advantages of having a solid set of triceps, there are essential functional benefits too.

Triceps are synergistic muscles, which means that  they are “helper muscles”. The pectoral muscles, front deltoids and triceps all perform n unison to orchestrate a strong push movement.

In addition to this, the triceps are very essential when it comes to lockout strength within push movements.

The triceps are often ignored when it comes to shoulder steadiness. Connecting directly to our shoulder blades, they play a important role. You can read more about how tricep strength and shoulder strength are connected, here.

So, as you can see, triceps are a great deal. But, no tricep pushdowns; no problems! Read on for the amazing alternatives that have your triceps protected!

On a side note, these exercises can all be done simply from a home gym – bonus!

1. Resistance Band Tricep Pushdowns

The traditional cable tricep pushdown can simply be be replicated with resistance bands!

Some could argue that this resistance band version of the exercise is even more efficient than the original, as it demands equal effort from the left and right triceps.

Another advantage of the resistance band pushdown over the cable machine pushdown, is the fact that the agitation is at its highest point at the end of the movement, like in the bench press. Whereas with the standard cable pushdown, agitation is mostly lost at the end of the movement.

How to:

To perform this exercise you need a resistance band of a correct level of resistance, and something to anchor it to, i.e. a power rack or door anchor. From here, assume the standard tricep pushdown placement, with an end of the band in each hand.

Lean forward slightly at the hips, and maintaining your elbows by your side, push the bands downwards, until you have surely straightened your arms/sealed out at the elbows. Grasp for a second and go back to the beginning position gently.

This can also be a perfect warm-up exercise if you use a band light enough to be able to pump out lots of reps!

2. Resistance Band Overhead Tricep Extensions

The tricep pushdown in overturn – overhead tricep extensions! This exercise is commonly done on a cable machine but can be done just as efficiently(if not more so) with a resistance band!

Going overhead will fatigue your triceps faster than your banded tricep pushdown, so aspire for a lighter band, and some extra reps.

How to:

Ensure your resistance band is anchored well to the bottom of a rack or door. Grasping an end in each hand, focus away from the anchor in a split stance with a neutral spine.

Have your arms overhead and elbows bent. Note, it is essential to maintain your shoulders still, and your elbows tucked in, to maximize the load focused on the triceps. From here, push the bands away from you until your triceps are completely contracted.

3. Lying Dumbbell Tricep Extensions

This is one of my personal favorites!

With this exercise, you should be careful with the weight you pick. Overdoing it could end in injured elbows, so lift within your capability!

How to:

To exemplify this exercise perfectly, lie on a flat bench with a dumbbell in each hand. Start with your arms lifted above your chest, arms shoulder-width apart and palms concentrating each other.

From here, bend at the elbows and lower the dumbbells down as far as you can move forward, whilst maintaining your shoulders unchanging. Once you get to the end of the movement (at which stage the dumbbells should be somewhere around your ears), focus your arms again until your elbows are sealed out.

As with the overhead extensions, maintain your elbows inwards rather than making them flare outwards whilst pushing the weights back up to beginning position.

I actually like to do this exercise with maximum weight for 8 to 10 reps.

If you’re looking for some dumbbells for your home gym to do exercises like this one, you can have a view at some here.

4. Close Grip Bench Press

When it comes to alternatives to the tricep pushdown, particularly for building chiseled triceps, one can’t touch on the close grip bench press!

This variation of the traditional bench press is a powerful exercise that will place your triceps a run for their money. The close grip bench press enables for a great strength exercise, and in my opinion, is best exemplified for maximum weight, over less reps.

How to:

To exemplify this exercise, lie on a flat bench with your knees bent and feet on the floor. Surmise a shoulder-width grip on the barbell. Prevent taking too close a grip, as this can fix unnecessary strain on your wrists.

From here, whilst maintaining your core connected, and your shoulder blades together for steadiness, lower the barbell down to your sternum. At the bottom of the movement grab for one second, and then explosively push the barbell back up.

Maintain your elbows close to your side for the safest and most efficient close grip bench press. And ensure you make use of a safety rack and/or a spotter when exemplifying these heavier lifts!

5. TRX Tricep Extensions

TRX cables are wonderful for building functional strength! And this exercise is not for the swoon-hearted.

I love this alternative to the tricep pushdown, not only because it demands full body activation, but because it gives endless room for progression — you can amend the amount of your body weight you’re loading by the placement of your feet in relation to the TRX anchor.

As with most exercises in which you are in complete control of stabilizing your body, the technique is everything.

Like the tricep pushdown, this exercise goes through the same movement pattern. However, unlike the tricep pushdown, this alternative demands the tension to be “on” all the time.  Think of it as the much harder version!

How to:

To exemplify this exercise, focusing away from the anchor point, have a handle in each hand on completely extended arms in front of you at eye level. You should be leaning into the cables with your body weight assisted by the TRX.

Maintaining your core connected at all times, lower your body towards the floor by bending at the elbows. Prevent having your elbows flare out whilst your hands move towards your head.

Once you reach a (just under) 90-degree bend in the elbows, agreeing with the triceps by pushing your hands away from your face, expanding your arms and lifting your body.

Don’t do more reps than you can handle, as your lower back will definitely suffer the consequences. And remember, the further away your feet are from the anchor point, the easier it will surely be. Begin slow!

TRX cables are an awesome training tool – you can check out some other exercises you can perform with them, here.

If you’re looking for alternatives for TRX straps.

6. Diamond Push Ups

A challenging bodyweight exercise that is not to be undervalued!

This variation of the push up makes a very good alternative to the tricep pushdown, reflecting on the motion and utilizing body weight for load. This one hits your triceps difficult!

For your own safety, it’s a great idea to perfect the standard push up before giving this one a shot!

How to:

To do the diamond push up, begin on your hands and knees and put your index fingers and thumbs in unison, making a diamond shape. Then get into push up placement, by raising your knees off the floor, forming a straight line from head to toe.

As with an ordinary push up, lower your chest towards the ground. Maintain your elbows close to your side as you lower down to just before your chest touches the ground. Grasp for a second and then push back up to expanded arms.

If you can simply perform 3 sets of 12, try the advanced version of this exercise by lifting your feet!

Final Notes

As you can see, tricep pushdowns are just one of many exercises that exist to assist strengthen and shape your triceps!

Your triceps are a essential part of assisting facilitate a strong push movement, so they deserve the attention!

And who needs a cable machine? Because from body weight, to resistance bands, to dumbbells to barbells and TRX cables, there’s a tricep exercise for any situation!

Conditioning The Best Triceps Exercises.

Move 1: Triangle Push-Ups

One of the few sources of scientific data in conditioning the best triceps exercises is a small EMG study that was supported and then published by the American Council on Exercise. The researchers supervised 15 subjects as they exemplify eight different triceps exercises; of these, the triangle push-up was found to stimulate the most activity in your triceps.

 1. Fix yourself in the usual push-up placement . Be steady on your hands and toes, body straight and hands placed underneath your shoulders. As an easier modification, you can perform bent knees.

  1. Bring your hands closer in unison, so that your thumbs and fingers form a triangle.

 2. Squeeze your core to maintain your body straight as you bend your arms, lowering your chest toward your hands as far as is conveniently possible.

 3. Straighten your arms, pressing your body back up to the beginning placement.

Tip

For some people, the space between your hands might seem more like a diamond — so it’s little wonder that this exercise is sometimes known as a diamond push-up.

Move 3: Tricep Kickbacks

After triangle push-ups, the next-best triceps exercise in the aforementioned ACE examination was the tricep kickback. For this exercise you need one or two dumbbells, plus a weight bench or other closely supportive surface.

  1. Grasp the dumbbell in your left hand.

  2. Bend your right knee; position it on the bench, then hinge forward from the hips and use your right arm on the bench to assist your body. Aspire to maintain your back flat like a shelf — not rounded straight like an upside-down bowl.  

3. Imagine that your left elbow is sealed against the side of your body as you straighten your left arm, raising the dumbbell until your arm is horizontal to the floor.

  4. Bend your elbow, lowering the dumbbell but maintaining your elbow tucked against your body.

   5. Once you’ve completed a full set of tricep extensions with your left arm, ensure  to switch the weight to your right hand, position your left knee and left hand on the bench, and work the other side of your body.

Move 4: Overhead Tricep Extension

If you don’t have the right equipment to do a tricep pushdown, a dumbbell is all that is needed for this alternative exercise. The most essential similarities between a tricep pushdown and overhead tricep extension are that both exercises work both arms at once, and also utilize external weight for resistance.

  1. Sit on a weight bench or a chair with a closely low back. You can also perform this exercise while seated on the bed, or even sitting on the floor.

  2. Grasp the inner plate at one end of the dumbbell in both hands, with the dumbbell handle passing between your overlapping thumbs and fingers.

  3. Squeeze your abs to maintain your torso steady as you raise the dumbbell straight overhead.

   4. Maintain your elbows close to your ears as you bend both arms, lowering the dumbbell behind your head.

   5. Focus your arms, pushing the dumbbell back overhead.

Move 5: Postpone Push-Ups

Exercises like the tricep pushdown force your triceps to work in isolation — but during real-world movements, your triceps rarely performs on its own. Because of that, joint movements like the push-up — even regular push-ups, as against the triangle push-up already stated — are a great way to work your triceps in a more functional way. Postponement of training is also a great workout for your core.

As examined in an EMG study of 21 volunteers, published in the December 2013 issue of the Journal of Human Kinetics, performing suspended push-ups produces even more activity in the triceps brachii — and all your other muscles — than performing push-ups on a static surface.

1. Amend the handles on the suspension trainer to the wanted height. The lower the handles, the more harder the exercise will be.

 2. Place yourself focusing away from the suspension trainer’s anchor, and take one handle in each hand.

 3. Walk your feet back, maintaining your body straight from head to heels and your arms straight too, until you’re in an inclined version of the classic push-up placement.

 4. Maintain your body straight as you bend your arms, lowering into a classic push-up placement with the handles of the suspension trainer near your nipple line. If the handles are down by your belly or above your shoulders, you need to move your feet back or forward gently.

 5. Straighten your arms, pressing yourself back to the beginning push-up position.

Tip

It might take a little trial and error to find the right placement for your suspension trainer. Ensure you stick to a convenient, controlled range of motion; lowering too far into a push-up, or without organization , can hurt your shoulders.

How To Do An Overhead Dumbbell Triceps Extension

Take a look around at your fellow gym-goers next time you visit the weight room and it’s almost sure  that you’ll see one or two of them performing biceps curls or some other laser-concentrated biceps exercise. It’s far rarer that you’ll spot someone paying similarly particular attention to their triceps, which is a shame – because if you’re chasing sleeve-bursting upper arms, you need titanic triceps just as much as, if not more than, bulging biceps.

Many exercises such as press-ups or bench presses perform the triceps as a secondary muscle, but the triceps extension puts them strongly in the limelight. As a result of this extra concentration, you should find that your triceps get stronger in quick fashion.

You can perform the triceps extension standing, sitting or lying down, and either flat or on an incline/decline. You can also perform it with different types of weight, like barbells or an EZ-bar, but the benefit of performing it with a dumbbell in each hand is that you will be able to spot and work on any arm strength imbalances. Just ensure you don’t overdo it with the weight, because it’s important to go through the full range of movement with the exercise to work the triceps perfectly and struggling with a dumbbell that’s too heavy will hinder your form.

How To Perform The Overhead Dumbbell Triceps Extension

If you solely have one set of dumbbells at home or your gym is limited in its range and most pairs are too heavy, you’ll need to ignore this move. News flash: Grasping too-heavy weights above your head is never a great idea. What’s more, this exercise demands you to move your triceps through a complete range of motion to work them correctly, and going too heavy makes this hard and increases your risk of a muscle injury.

Begin standing with your feet shoulder width apart and dumbbells held in front of you. Lift the dumbbells above your head until your arms are stretched out straight. Slowly lower the weights back behind your head, being mindful  not to flare your elbows out too much. Once your forearms move beyond parallel to the floor bring the weight back up to the beginning position. Your upper arms should remain in position throughout the movement.

Aspire  for four sets of eight to 12 reps.

You can superset this move with standard or diamond press-ups to perform your triceps more thoroughly, as well as strengthening your chest and shoulders. Just remember to concentrate on moving your triceps through a complete range of motion with every rep to make sure you activate more muscle fibres. Because the more fibres that get called into action, the bigger and faster your muscles will grow.

Overhead Dumbbell Triceps Extension Variations

One-arm overhead dumbbell triceps extension

By utilizing dumbbells instead of a EZ-bar for the overhead extension you work each arm distinctly and make known that one stronger side isn’t carrying the weaker one, but it’s also worth performing the exercise with one arm at a time. This lets you concentrate on perfect form in that one arm, and also permits for a greater range of motion so you can ensure you’re working every part of the triceps with the move. As with all forms of the exercise, ensure you don’t overdo it with the weight you utilize and ideally you want to be able to relax the weight evenly in both palms. 

Overhead cable triceps extension.

If you utilize la cable machine instead of dumbbells to practice the exercise, the main advantage is a stable level of resistance throughout the movement. Connect a handle to the low pulley on the machine and grab it in both hands above your head with your arms fully expanded. Lower the rope behind you, maintaining your upper arms stationary, then flex your triceps to return to the beginning placement.

Lying triceps extension

If you love a lie-down during your workout, move your triceps extensions to a bench. This can help you concentrate on the movement of your arms better than the standing variation, and both exercises produce the same advantages – namely bulkier upper arms.

Lie on a flat bench, grasping the dumbbells above you with your arms expanded and your palms concentrating each other. Bend at your elbows to lower the weights on either side of your head, Maintaining your upper arms stationary and making sure you don’t flare your elbows out to the sides. Slowly take the dumbbells back up to the beginning position.

Gym ball lying triceps extension

If you take to the lying version of the triceps extension you can enhance the difficulty of the move by performing it while lying on a gym ball rather than a bench. The unstable surface of the ball means that your core has to work keep good form while you exemplifying the exercise, adding a whole new advantage to what is otherwise an isolation move that concentrates the triceps. Ensure to utilize especially light weights when performing your triceps extensions on a gym ball, because otherwise it’s more than likely you’ll fall off.

How To Perform Exercise

The cable rope overhead triceps extension exercise works the tricep muscle by moving it behind your neck and assisting build stronger and bigger arms.

Cable Rope Overhead Triceps

Steps :

1.) Start off standing with your feet shoulder-width apart, maintaining your back straight and abs tightly drawn in.

2.) Grasp and hold onto a rope extension with both hands with your palms focusing up and raise the rope over your head as this will be your beginning position.

3.) Slowly lower the rope connection in an arc motion behind your head, feeling a stretch and set apart your tricep muscles.

4.) Grasp this placement for a count, then slowly lift the rope back up to the beginning.

5.) Repeat for as many reps and sets as wanted.

How to do Lying Cable Tricep Extension:

1. Step 1: Lie down on a flat bench and grab onto the straight bar attachment of a low pulley utilizing a narrow overhand grip.

 2.   Step 2: Maintaining your arms expanded, bring the bar down over your torso, creating a 90-degree angle. This is the beginning placement.

  3. Step 3: Bend at the elbow to lower the bar, while maintaining your upper arms stationary and your elbows in. Pull down until the bar makes connection with your forehead. Breath in while you exemplify this movement.

  4. Step 4: Flex your triceps as you lift the bar back to its beginning position. Exhale while you do so.

 5. Step 5: Grab for a second in the contracted placement and repeat for the number of reps in your set.

DUMBBELL LYING TRICEPS EXTENSION

While there are numerous triceps exercises from which to pick, incorporating this particular movement is sure to firm up the back of your arms rapidly. Just remember that the key to reaping this exercise’s advantages is paying careful concentration to form.

START: Ensure you Lie faceup on a flat bench with your feet flat on the floor. Hold a dumbbell in each hand and grab them directly above you with your palms focusing inward (neutral grip) and your arms extended.

MOVEMENT: Maintaining your upper arms stationary and perpendicular to the bench, bend your elbows to put the dumbbells toward the top/sides of your head. As your inner elbow joints move 90-degree angles, pause and then smoothly reverse direction by pressing back to complete arm extension. Squeeze your triceps at the top most of the movement.

WHEN TO UTILIZE IT: The dumbbell lying triceps extension is a great move to start your triceps routine. After 1—2 warm-up sets, perform this exercise first before movements such as the triceps pressdown or dumbbell kickback. Practice  2—3 sets of 12—15 reps. You can also perform these one arm at a time, utilizing your nonworking arm to spot yourself for those few extra

Dumbbell exercises for triceps target the triceps muscles, quite simply.

Browse through the several dumbbell exercises for triceps below:

1. Two-Arms Triceps Extension

2. One-Arm Triceps Extension

3. Seated Triceps Extension

4. Triceps Kickback

5. Bent-Over One-Arm Triceps Extension

6. Lying Triceps Extension

7. Triceps Bench Press

Two-Arms Triceps Extension

Stand up and grasp one dumbbell with both hands behind your head, upper arms focusing straight up.

 1.  Lift the dumbbell up by curling your elbows and gently lower it back after a short pause.

 2. Your upper arms should remain stagnant throughout.

One-Arm Triceps Extension

1. Stand up and grab the dumbbell with one hand behind your head, elbow at a 90 degree angle, upper arm straight up.

    2. Lift the dumbbell with one hand until your arm is close to being fully expanded and slowly lower it back after a short pause. Alternate after a set.

  3. Maintain your upper arm still throughout.

Seated Triceps Extension

1. Sit down and grab one dumbbell with both hands behind your head, elbows at 90 degree angles, upper arms straight up.

   2. Lift the dumbbell with both hands until your arms are close to being fully expanded and gently  lower it back after a short pause.

  3. Maintain your upper arms still throughout.

Triceps Kickback

1. Place your knee and hand on a bench and grab a dumbbell with your other hand, palm focusing your body, upper arm parallel to your body.

 2. Push the dumbbell back by expanding your elbow and permit it to slowly return after a short pause.

 3. Maintain your upper arm stagnant throughout.

Bent-Over One-Arm Triceps Extension

Sit down, crouch forward and grab one dumbbell with one hand, elbow at a 90 degree angle, palm focusing your body.

  1.  Lift the dumbbell with one hand until your arm is parallel to the ground and gently lower it back after a short pause. Alternate after a set.

 2. Maintain your upper arm still throughout.

Lying Triceps Extension

  1. Lie down on your back on a bench and grab a dumbbell in each hand, palms centralizing up, upper arms targeting the ceiling.

 2. Lift the dumbbells by expanding your elbows and permit them to gently return after a short pause.

3. Maintain your upper arms stagnant throughout.

Triceps Bench Press

Lie down on your back on a bench and grab the dumbbells on your sides just above your chest, palms centralizing each other.

1. Push the dumbbells facing up until your arms are close to being fully expanded and gently lower them back after a short pause.

2. Exhale  when pushing the dumbbells up and breathe out when lowering them back down.

How to Do the Dumbbell Lying Triceps Extension

When it comes to sculpting strong arms, biceps get most of the concentration. They’re the primary arm muscles you see when you look in the mirror, after all, and they stand at concentration every time you flex your elbow.

But here is the actual thing: Your biceps only contain one third of the mass of your upper arms. The other two-thirds contain of the lobster-claw shaped muscles on the other side — your triceps — and few exercises focus on them more efficiently than the dumbbell lying triceps extension.

Dumbbell Lying Triceps Extension: Step By Step Instructions

1. Lie face up on a bench with your feet flat on the floor, and grab a pair of dumbbells above your chest with your arms straight and your palms centralizing each other.

2. Without transporting your upper arms, bend your elbows and lower the dumbbells to the sides of your head until your forearms move below parallel to the floor.

3. Pause, and then return to the beginning placement.

Muscles Focused on by the Dumbbell Lying Triceps Extension

The lying triceps extension is an isolation exercise, as against a compound movement that means it focuses on just one muscle group or muscle (the triceps, natch) across a single joint. The triceps muscle is so known because it’s comprised of three heads — the long, lateral, and medial — focusing on the elbow.

How to Make the Dumbbell Lying Triceps Extension Harder

Obviously, you can progress the move by utilizing heavier weights, but you can also make it more difficult by alternating your grip every three reps.

If you’re performing a 10-rep set:     1. Exemplify your first 3 reps with your palms focusing on each other (i.e., neutral grip)

2. Then perform 3 reps with your palms centralizing backward (i.e., underhand grip)

3.  And finish by performing 4 reps with your hands focusing forward (i.e., overhand grip)

By following this strategy, you’ll ensure that all three “heads” of your triceps receive equal concentration.

Bonus Tips for Performing the Dumbbell Lying Triceps Extension

Go gently, maintain control, and utilize a lighter weight than you think you can handle — particularly if you decide to try the more challenging alternating-grip variation portrayed above.

Also, maintain your upper arms sealed in place. If you move them as you lower the weights, you’ll shift some of the work away from your triceps, reducing the efficiency of the exercise.

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